1979 Peace Agreement Israel Egypt

1979 Peace Agreement Israel Egypt

President Jimmy Carter (center) congratulates Egyptian President Anwar Sadat (left) and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in a three-handed handshake after the signing of the historic peace treaty between Israel and Egypt. | AFP/Getty Images The peace process continued without Sadat and led to the establishment of full diplomatic relations between the two former adversaries in 1982. This decision made Egypt the only Arab state to officially recognize Israel until Jordan did the same in 1994. The Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية, Mu`āhadat as-Salām al-Misrīyah al-`Isrā`īlīyah; Hebrew: הסכם השלום בין ישראל ללמצרים, Heskem HaShalom Bein Yisrael LeMitzrayim) was signed on March 2.C 6, 1979 in Washington, D.C., USA, after the Camp David Agreement of 1978. The treaty between Egypt and Israel was signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, in the presence of U.S. President Jimmy Carter. [1] The peace treaty between Egypt and Israel was signed 16 months after Egyptian President Anwar Sadat`s visit to Israel in 1977 after intense negotiations. The main features of the treaty were mutual recognition, an end to the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, normalization of relations, and Israel`s withdrawal of its forces and civilians from the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War. Egypt has agreed to demilitarize the Sinai Peninsula.

The agreement provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and the recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. The agreement also called for an end to Israeli military rule over the territories occupied by Israel and the creation of full autonomy for the Palestinian inhabitants of the territories, conditions that were not implemented but formed the basis of the Oslo Accords. By handing over Sinai to Egypt, Israel may have given up its only chance to become energy independent. The Alma oil field in Southern Sinai, discovered and developed by Israel, was transferred to Egypt in November 1979. By the time Israel abandoned this area, it had become the country`s largest source of energy, providing half of the country`s energy needs. Israel, which estimated the value of untapped reserves in the Alma field at $100 billion, had predicted that further development would make the country self-sufficient in energy by 1990. Recognizing his willingness to join Sadat in compromises for peace, Begin shared the Nobel Peace Prize with the Egyptian leader in 1978. On March 26, 1979, sixteen months after Egyptian President Anwar Sadat`s spectacular visit to Jerusalem, Israel and Egypt – longtime enemies – signed a peace treaty on the white house lawn in Washington, D.C. Representatives of the group had told U.S. diplomats that they had no intention of revoking the treaty. [25] Less than two years earlier, in an unprecedented move for an Arab leader, Sadat traveled to Jerusalem, Israel, in search of a lasting peace agreement with Egypt`s Jewish neighbor after decades of conflict.

Sadat`s visit, during which he met Begin and addressed the Israeli parliament, sparked outrage in most Arab countries. Despite criticism from Egypt`s regional allies, Sadat continued his peace with Begin, and in September 1978 the two leaders met again in the United States, where they negotiated a deal with U.S. President Jimmy Carter at Camp David, Maryland. The Camp David Accords, the first peace agreement between the State of Israel and one of its Arab neighbors, laid the foundation for diplomatic and trade relations. Seven months later, a formal peace treaty was signed. On 18 May 1981, the President of the UN Security Council stressed that the United Nations could not provide an observer force because of the threat of a veto by the Soviet Union against the request. Following the impasse, Egypt, Israel and the United States began negotiations on the establishment of a peacekeeping organization outside the framework of the United Nations. On 3 August 1981, the Protocol to the Peace Treaty was signed, establishing the Multinational Force and Observers (MFO). [3] This observer force monitors both parties to ensure compliance with the treaty.

For their achievements, Sadat and Begin were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978. Sadat`s peace efforts were not so praised in the Arab world – Egypt was expelled from the Arab League, and on October 6, 1981, Muslim extremists assassinated Sadat in Cairo. Nevertheless, the peace process continued without Sadat, and in 1982 Egypt formally established diplomatic relations with Israel. As part of the agreement, the United States began providing economic and military assistance to Egypt and political support to its successive governments. From the Camp David peace accords in 1978 to 2000, the United States subsidized the Egyptian armed forces with more than $38 billion in aid. Egypt receives about $1.3 billion a year. [15] On March 26, 1979, the two countries signed a peace treaty on the White House lawn. Sadat, who had campaigned for the peace treaty, was vilified in the Arab world and assassinated in 1981. Peace between Egypt and Israel has been going on since the treaty entered into force, and Egypt has become an important strategic partner of Israel.